Category: Photography

Big Pine Key: Diving a Species Protected Area

This is a series of videos taken while diving a Species Protected Area (SPA) just off of Big Pine Key.
Sorry to say it is not my best work as this was my first outing with the RX100/Meikon/UWL-100 rig. The white spots in some of the shot are due to not filling the space between the flat port and UWL-100 with water. The seas were 1-2 ft on the reef that day and the surge made it nearly impossible to achieve a steady shot.
Music by: Gustavo Santaolalla

My Rig: Sony DSC-RX100 with Meikon Housing, Inon UWL-100 Type 2, and Sea&Sea YS-01

RX-100, Meikon Housing, Inon UWL-100, Sea&Sea YS-01

With the first dive trip with my new underwater photography rig in the bag, I return with my impressions of my current dive photography rig: Sony DSC-RX100 in a Meikon Housing, an Inon UWL-100 Type 2, and a Sea&Sea YS-01. It is safe to say I am quite happy, but not without a few complaints.

Just a few, short months ago I was diving with the same camera and housing I owned for the better part of 10 years. The trusty Ikelite housing kept my Canon A720 IS safe from salty death. It’s 67mm threaded aluminum port allowed me to slide my Inon UWL-100 wide angle lens on quite easily both above and below the water’s surface. However, this camera was quite dated and touted a mere 8 megapixel resolution and an abysmal (by today’s standards) 640 x 480 @ 30fps video resolution.

Sony DCS_RX100

The Sony DSC-RX100 is the first of three generations of the RX100 product line. While not the hottest “prosumer” compact camera, the initial reviews raved of it’s 20 megapixel resolution, large sensor, and HD quality video capture. The features and functions of this camera can be found elsewhere so I won’t go into great detail here. But what I will do is explain the experiences of an amateur underwater photographer with 10 years of experience behind him.

Meikon Housing (via

Combining the camera with the Meikon underwater housing nets you a very compact package. However, unlike the Ikelite and Sea&Sea housings, the Meikon housing does not afford you the opportunity to control the jog wheel on the back of the camera. This means if you have to commit to a few extra maneuvers to control the aperture and shutter speed in full manual mode. I did find that once I was able to dial in the highest shutter speed for the depth of my dive, changing the aperture was very easy to do with the front program ring.

RX100 with UWL-100. Notice the lack of vignetting.
RX100 with UWL-100. Notice the lack of vignetting.
A720 IS with UWL-100. With a noticeable amount of vignette.
A720 IS with UWL-100. With a noticeable amount of vignette.

What I really enjoyed about this housing was the 67mm threaded port on the front of the housing. It’s close proximity to the RX100’s lens virtually eliminated the vignetting in the UWL-100. This was quite a shocking difference from the Canon/Ikelite combo I previously used. However, that very same port does not have any drainage holes like the Ikelite housing. The pros and cons of this missing element cancel each other out, in my opinion. The good thing about not having drainage holes in the port means you can create over-under shots much more easily. The bad thing about those same missing drainage holes forces you to mount your lens underwater. The potential of dropping your ‘glass’ underwater and potentially scratching the lens is nerve wracking. However, I found having water between the lens and the housing’s flat port dramatically increases your field of view.

Another thing I am not too happy about with the Meikon housing is the position of the closing hatch. The hatch was placed on the right of the camera. The unfortunate thing about this placement is that I found myself unintentionally fidgeting with the top release button. Of course if I were to depress the button my mistake I would have most certainly had a flooded camera on my hands. It took a little bit of conscience avoidance to keep my hands away from the dangerous flood gates. Furthermore the latches that are used to close the housing are made of a high density polycarbonate. While I had no issues with these plastic latches in particular, I would think that over time they may wear down and make the housing door more difficult to keep closed. This is something I will have to keep my eye on over the next few months.

Sea&Sea YS-01

The Sea&Sea YS-01 worked flawlessly with both the camera and the housing. This reliable little beast served me well by supplying plenty of light for two dives on a single charge. In fact, I found for most of the photographs I had taken only needed 1/3 of the full power to illuminate my subject. While I did not splurge for the Sea&Sea fiber optic sync cable, I was able to take a cheap optical audio cable to perform the same function. In fact, I used a 1″ pvc pipe and a hair dryer to create the pig-tail in the otherwise straight cable.

Parting Words

In all, I feel that the combination of camera, housing, lens, and sub-strobe fit nicely to create a compact and powerful rig. The vignetting with the UWL-100 is minimal, yet mounting the threaded lens to a plastic thread is somewhat frustrating. The Meikon housing does not provide access to all the functions of the camera, but your creativity can be unleashed with a few extra clicks and twists. The price of this setup is relatively cheap considering just how expensive other RX-100 housings on the market are today. However, it is safe to say Meikon has put together a sold housing that is acceptable to the amateur underwater photographer.

An Interesting Reef


Here’s an interesting patch of reef found in 55 feet of water off Islamorada. At first it looks rather unremarkable compared to the reefs found around the Florida Keys. But if you look closer you will find what looks to be a rope intertwined throughout the coral. This spot of patch reef grew from a lost lobster pot and the rope used to secure it to the marker buoy.

DSC01160 DSC01164

The neat thing about this reef is the biodiversity found in such a small area. This three square foot area held several types of sponges, some star coral, over a dozen damsels, arrow crabs, banded coral shrimp and even an anemone. That’s pretty impressive since this reef sat right in the middle of an account expansive area of a sand bottom.

Chasing Lionfish

While diving Islamorada this year we happened to run out of reef and drifted over the sand bottom of the Atlantic. There we were greeted by three remora as well as an abandoned lobster pot. Structures in large areas devoid of places for juvenile fish to hide are typically teaming with life. And that was certainly the case for this lobster pot.

To our surprise, it was the makeshift home for two lionfish. We don’t normally hunt this invasive species with a spear gun, but since we were hunting grouper and hogfish earlier, it was all we had. My dive partner holding the bag has a great deal of experience capturing volitans in the Pacific, hence his indifference to the poisonous spines the lionfish uses to protect itself. However, I can say I have never seen him move so quickly while diving when the lionfish mistook him for a hiding place (starts at 1:30).

Chasing Lionfish – Islamorada, FL from Christopher Smart on Vimeo.

Choosing a dive buddy: What to look for.

Dive Buddies
Communication is key.

When choosing a dive buddy there are several things you should take into consideration to make your dives safer and more enjoyable. A dive buddy who is safety conscious,  has a willingness to learn, knows their gear, and has good buoyancy control are just a few things that makes a good partner.

I had made a mistake several years ago when choosing my dive buddy for an ocean drift dive. Several things compounded the issues I ran into  such as being unfamiliar with the dive operator and dive sites. But the issue that caused the majority of my frustration for the dives that day was simply the dive buddy I selected. He, let’s call him Flip, was a relatively new diver with limited exposure to drift diving. In fact, I believe Flip had less than 50 dives under his belt when we ventured off the coast of Florida.

It wasn’t until recently that it occurred to me that his lack of experience impacted my dive so negatively. I dove with another individual I have known for over ten years and the experience was very different in some ways, yet similar in others. He held approximately the same level of experience as Flip, but communicated very well before and during our dives and he showed me he was willing to learn from others. It is safe to say it was his personality that made all the difference for me.

Safety is priority number one

Think about your last dive. You spent weeks or months planning the dive trip. You paid the dive shop and are on the boat ready to get underwater when you find your regulator or dive computer isn’t working correctly. You look to your dive buddy and let him know there is a malfunction. What do you do?

Any diver that goes through all  this and yet is still willing to call off a dive due to an equipment malfunction is a good dive buddy. As frustrating as it is there is no dive on the planet that would make me unnecessarily risk my own life or my dive buddy’s life.

But when you do get underwater with no issues, check to see if your buddy is pushing the limits of the dive profile at hand. Did they dive too deep on the wall? Did they surface with too little air? All of these are things to keep your eye on when diving with a new buddy and would warrant a conversation back on the dive boat.

Ask “What do you want out of these dives?”

This question was asked of me days before my first dive with my new dive partner. He followed this question with a statement of how silly it sounded, but in all honesty, it was the best question a new dive buddy could ask. As a photographer my response was that I wanted to spend time taking photographs. This meant I would be stopping frequently and focusing in on  aquatic life and waiting for the right time to take a shot. This would affect his dive as well since he now knows he may have to stop and wait for me while I shoot.

His response was to work on his fundamental skills like buoyancy, controlled breathing and managing the safety stop. This gave me an idea of his competency underwater and also keyed me in on some things I could help him improve. Having this conversation proved to be helpful to both of us.

Air consumption

One of the most frustrating things you can run into during a dive is a buddy who expends air much quicker than you do. With my new dive buddy this issue came up quickly (pun intended). I found his breathing pattern was much more rapid than mine and he consumed air twice as quickly as I did. While not a deal-breaker as far as buddies go, it is most certainly something we talked about during our surface interval.

Be sure to ask your new dive buddy how quickly they typically burn through a cylinder of air or nitrox. If your dive profile calls for a 60 ft (18 m) depth you should expect to hear your dive buddy say they can stay down for approximately 45 minutes and still have plenty of air for a safety stop.

Gearing up

Gearing up quickly and without incident is a great skill to have. And that goes for your dive buddy as well! I am sure you have seen a diver on the boat who can’t find their fin, screwed their regulator to the tank valve with the tank still strapped to the dive boat, or even forgotten their weights after their giant stride. The ability to gear up quickly is important as it shows the diver is experienced and in some cases courteous to other on the boat. Most divers like to be the ‘first in’ as it affords them the opportunity to descend to the reef and potentially see more marine life. You can’t do this if your buddy is still trying to find his mask!


Know who the diver you plan on spending the next few hours with well. You don’t have to be lifelong friends but you should know who their personality, how many dives they have completed, who to contact if there is a dive accident, and simply enjoy their company. Besides, who will drink a beer with you after the dive if you don’t like your buddy?

Willingness to pair up

According to DAN’s 2010 Fatalities Workshop  40% of fatalities took place during a period of buddy separation. My buddy Flip had one major flaw when we dove together; he decided to dive with someone else. I didn’t find this out until the middle of our first dive which was troublesome for me. Flip mentioned this ‘other guy’ was closer to his age and experience level so he ‘decided to dive with him’. Not only was my ego bruised (not really) but I was left without a dive partner. It was at that moment that I decided I will no longer dive with Flip.

On the other hand my new dive buddy mentioned he wanted to be at an arms length from me during the dive. While I wasn’t comfortable with such a close proximity to my dive partner, we had a small chat about how I prefer to dive and he did stay with me during our dives at a distance of about five meters.

Helpful on the boat

Don’t just help me gear up, help others as well. Help the crew by staying out of their way. Help new divers by handing them their fins. Help people to their seats after a dive. Help yourself by being attentive to the captain and dive master’s instructions. This type of karma goes a long way and earns you and your buddy respect on the boat.

Nurse Shark
Nurse Shark

Shows respect for all marine life and regulations

Inform your buddy to not harass turtles, nurse sharks, or other wildlife while diving. It’s tacky and potentially dangerous. If spearfishing, they should not be ‘shooting tropicals’ such as butterflies or small wrasse for the hell of it. Your dive buddy should be well educated on the area’s fishing regulations and must be able to properly identify the species of fish they plan on harvesting. Nothing frustrates me more than seeing a diver shoot a protected Nassau grouper while mistaking it for a Black or Gag grouper.

Good buoyancy Control

Is your buddy ‘swimming with their hands’? Do they look like they are waving to all the fish as they pass them by? Chances are they still need work on their buoyancy control. Having good buoyancy control limits the amount of air you consume and in general makes the dive more enjoyable. Good buoyancy also will help with safety stops.

Also, inform your buddy to stay off the bottom if you are photographing wildlife. Nothing is more frustrating than back scatter caused by a diver that ruins a nice shot.

Diving with Ramora

Ramora’s modified dorsal fin.

Three Remora from Christopher Smart on Vimeo.

While in Islamorada my dive partners and I found that we ran out of reef shortly  after our descent. While drifting over a sand bottom looking for hogfish or grouper we were entertained by three rather large ramora. They circled us for about ten minutes as if to be searching for some place to latch on for a free ride.

An interesting fact about ramora is that the ‘sucker’ on the top of their head is actually  a modified dorsal fin.


Diving Jupiter, FL

Townsend Angel
Townsend Angel

This weekend I went back to Jupiter Dive Center with a friend of mine to try my hand once again at cattle boat diving. To my dismay I found that half of the boat was dedicated to an open water certification class’ check out dives. This meant there were nearly a dozen new divers on the boat. Fortunately Jupiter Dive Center had everything under control.





Vase Sponge
Vase Sponge

On board Republic VII, we navigated to our first dive which took us only about twenty minutes. Here at Lee’s Ledges our dive guide was able to put us in 40′ of visibility in slightly chilly water. Here we saw a few loggerhead turtles, tons of macro algae and your usual fare of south Florida aquatic life.





Sharpnose Puffer
Sharpnose Puffer

Our second dive was the always entertaining ‘Tunnels’. Aptly named, Tunnels features several arches which experienced divers can swim through .  This dive hosts green morays, lemon sharks and the always impressive Goliath Grouper!

Truth be told this was a fairly relaxing pair of dives for a cattle boat. Our dive guide did a very good job at making sure all divers were accounted for. He made sure to stop every ten or twenty feet and wait for us divers bringing up the rear to catch up. Every other stop or so he made an effort to give each diver an ‘OK’ sign to ensure they were comfortable. Truth be told, I haven’t seen an attention to diver safety and comfort this good since Diving Solutions was still operating in West Palm Beach.  Good job, guys!




Spotted Goatfish, resting.
Spotted Goatfish, resting.
Spotted Goatfish, resting.
Spotted Goatfish, resting.
Surprised Harlequin Bass
Surprised Harlequin Bass
Spanish Hogfish
Spanish Hogfish
Cottonwick Grunts
Cottonwick Grunts

Lionfish in Islamorada

While drift diving in Islamorada this year my dive partners and I happened across an abandoned and dilapidated lobster pot. Since the current carried us away from the reef shortly after beginning our dive we decided to investigate.  Inside this pot were several Jackknife drum, juvenile wrasse, Gray triggerfish and two healthy Lionfish. I was able to take these shots before they were culled.

IMG_0245  IMG_0244